On-line article, "Speech teatment for Parkinson's disease" (in pdf).

Select References on Voice in Parkinson Disease and Other Neurological Disorders

Data-based articles evaluating the efficacy of the LSVT ®
Articles describing voice and speech in individuals with Parkinson disease
Book chapters and review papers on neurological voice and speech disorders
Treatment video tapes and materials
Other recent papers of general interest
Application of LSVT: LSVT BIG, LSVT BIG & LOUD, Pediatrics and Technology-enhanced delivery of treatment, and published abstracts

Review Paper
Fox, C., Morrison, C., Ramig, L., & Sapir, S. (2002). Current perspectives on the Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT ® ) American Journal of Speech Language Pathology . 11, 111-123.

Data-based articles evaluating the efficacy of the LSVT ® for individuals with Parkinson Disease and other Neurological Disorders

Baumgartner, C., Sapir, S., & Ramig, L. (2001). Voice quality changes following phonatory-respiratory effort Treatment (LSVT Ò ) versus respiratory effort treatment for individuals with Parkinson disease. J. Voice . 15, 1;105-114.

Countryman, S., Hicks, J., Ramig, L., & Smith, M. (1997). Supraglottal hyperadduction in an individual with Parkinson disease: A clinical treatment note. American J. Speech-Language Pathology, 6(4), 74-84.

Countryman, S., & Ramig, L. (1993). Effects of intensive voice therapy on voice deficits associated with bilateral thalamotomy in Parkinson's disease: A case study. J. Medical Speech-Language Pathology, 1 , 233-250.

Countryman, S., Ramig, L., & Pawlas, A. (1994). Speech and voice deficits in Parkinsonian Plus syndromes: Can they be treated? J. Medical Speech-Language Pathology , 2(3) , 211-225.

Dromey, C., Ramig, L. & Johnson, A. B. (1995). Phonatory and articulatory changes associated with increased vocal intensity in Parkinson disease: A case study. J. Speech and Hearing Research , 38 , 751-764.

El-Sharkawi, A., Ramig, L., Logemann, J., Pauloski, B., Rademaker, A., Smith, C., Pawlas, A., Baum, S., & Werner, C. (2002). Swallowing and voice effects of Lee Silverman Voice Treatment: A pilot study. J. Neurology, Neuropsychiatry, and Psychiatry, 72(1), 31-36.

Huber, J., Stathopoulos, E., Ramig, L. & Lancaster, S. (2003) Respiratory function and variability in individuals with Parkinson disease: pre and post Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT ® ). J. Medical Speech-Language Pathology, 11(4) , 185-201.

Liotti, M., Vogel, D., Ramig, L., New, P., Cook, C., Ingham, RJ, Ingham, JC & Fox, P. (2003). Hypophonia in Parkinson's disease: neural correlates of voice treatment revealed by PET. Neurology , 60 , 432-440.

Ramig, L., Bonitati, C. M., Lemke, J. H., & Horii, Y. (1994). Voice treatment for patients with Parkinson disease: Development of an approach and preliminary efficacy data. J. Medical Speech-Language Pathology , 2(3) , 191-209.

Ramig, L., Countryman, S., O'Brien, C., Hoehn, M., & Thompson, L. (1996). Intensive speech treatment for patients with Parkinson disease: Short and long-term comparison of two techniques. Neurology , 47 , 1496-1504.

Ramig, L., Countryman, S., Thompson, L., & Horii, Y. (1995). A comparison of two forms of intensive speech treatment for Parkinson disease. J. Speech and Hearing Research, 38 , 1232-1251.

Ramig, L., & Dromey, C. (1996). Aerodynamic mechanisms underlying treatment related changes in SPL in patients with Parkinson disease. J. Speech and Hearing Research , 39, 798-807.

Ramig, L., Sapir, S., Countryman S., Pawlas, A., O'Brien, C., Hoehn, M., & Thompson, L. (2001). Intensive voice treatment (LSVT Ò ) for individuals with Parkinson disease: A two-year follow-up. J. Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry . 71, 493-498.

Ramig, L., Sapir, S., Fox, C., & Countryman, S. (2001). Changes in vocal intensity following intensive voice treatment (LSVT Ò ) in individuals with Parkinson disease: A comparison with untreated patients and normal age-matched controls. Movement Disorders , 16 , 79-83.

Sapir, S., Pawlas, A., Ramig, L., Seeley, E., Fox, C., & Corboy, J. (2001). Effects of intensive phonatory-respiratory treatment (LSVT Ò ) on voice in two individuals with multiple sclerosis. J. Speech Language Pathology . 9(2) , 35-45.

Sapir, S., Ramig, L., Hoyt, P, O'Brien, C., & Hoehn, M. (2002). Speech loudness and quality 12 months after intensive voice treatment (LSVT) for Parkinson's disease: a comparison with an alternative speech treatment. Folia Phoniatrica , 54 , 296-303.

Sapir, S., Spielman, J., Countryman, S., Ramig, L., Hinds, S., Fox, C., and Story, B. (2003). Phonatory and articulatory changes in ataxic dysarthria following intensive voice therapy with the LSVT ® : A single subject study. American J. Speech-Language Pathology , 12 , 387-399.

Sapir, S.., Spielman, J., Ramig, L., Story, B. & Fox, C. (2007) Effects of intensive voice treatment (LSVT ® )) on vowel articulation in dysarthric individuals with idiopathic Parkinson's disease:  Acoustic and perceptual findings.  J. Speech Language and Hearing Research , 50 , 899-912.

Smith, M. E., Ramig, L., Dromey, C., Perez, K. S., & Samandari, R. (1995). Intensive voice treatment in Parkinson's disease: Laryngostroboscopic findings. J. Voice , 9 , 453-459.

Spielman, J., Borod, J., and Ramig. L. (2003). Effects of Intensive Voice Treatment (LSVT) on Facial Expressiveness in Parkinson's Disease: Preliminary Data. Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology. 16(3), 177-188.

Spielman, J., Ramig, L., Will, L., Halpern, A., & Petska, J. (2007). Effects of LSVT Extended (LSVT-X) on Voice and Speech in Parkinson Disease. American J. Speech, Language Pathology,16 , 95-107.

Data-based articles describing voice, speech and communication in individuals with Parkinson Disease
Baker, K., Ramig, L., Johnson, A. B., & Freed, C. (1997). Preliminary voice and speech analysis following fetal dopamine transplants in 5 individuals with Parkinson disease. J. Speech and Hearing Research, 40 , 615-626.

Baker, K., Ramig, L., Luschei, E., & Smith, M. (1998). Thyroarytenoid muscle activity associated with hypophonia in Parkinson disease and aging. Neurology, 51:6 , 1592-1598.

Fox, C. & Ramig, L. (1997). Vocal sound pressure level and self-perception of speech and voice in men and women with idiopathic Parkinson disease. American J. Speech-Language Pathology , 6 , 85-94.

King, J., Ramig, L., Lemke, J. H., & Horii, Y. (1994). Parkinson disease: Longitudinal changes in acoustic parameters of phonation. J. Medical Speech-Language Pathology , 2 , 29-42.

Larson, K., Ramig, L., & Scherer, R. C., (1994). Acoustic and glottographic voice analysis during drug-related fluctuations in Parkinson's disease. J. Medical Speech-Language Pathology , 2(3) , 227-239.

Luschei, E., Ramig, L., Baker, K., & Smith, M. (1999) Discharge characteristics of laryngeal single motor units during phonation in young and older adults and individuals with Parkinson disease. J. Neurophysiology , 81, 2131-2139.

Perez, K., Ramig, L., Smith, M., & Dromey, C. (1996). The Parkinson larynx: Tremor and videolaryngostroboscopic findings. J. Voice , 10(4) , 354-361.

Quek, F., Bryll, R., Harper M.P., Chen, L. & Ramig, L. (2001). Audio and vision-base evaluation of Parkinson's Disease from discourse video. Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium of Bio-Informatics and Bio-Engineering , 245-252 .

Quek, R., Harper, M.P., Haciahmetoglu, Y., Chen, L. & Ramig, L. (2002). Speech pauses and gestural holds in Parkinsons Disease. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Spoken Language Processing , 2485-2488.

Ramig, L., & Gould, W. J. (1988). Speech characteristics in Parkinson's disease. Neurologic Consultant , 4(1) , 1-8. New York : Lawrence Delia Corte Publications.

Sapir, S., Pawlas, A., Ramig, L., Countryman, S., O'Brien, C., Hoehn, M., Thompson, L. (2001) Voice and Speech Abnormalities in Parkinson disease: relation to severity of motor impairment, duration of disease, medication, depression, gender and age. J. Medical Speech Language Pathology 9, 4, 213-226.

Book chapters and review papers on neurological voice and speech disorders and LSVT
Abaza, M. and Spielman, J. (2006). The Larynx in Parkinson's Disease, In A. Merati & S. Bielamowicz (Eds.), Textbook of Laryngology  (pp. 239-246). New York City : Plural Publishing.

Blitzer, A., Brin, M. and Ramig, L. (in press). Neurological Disorders of the Larynx . New York City : Theime Medical Publishers.

Brin, M. F., Fahn, S., Blitzer, A., Ramig, L., & Stewart, C. (1992). Movement disorders of the larynx. In A. Blitzer, M. Brin, C. Sasaki, S. Fahn, and K. Harris (Eds.) Neurologic Disorders of the Larynx (pp. 248-278). New York : Thieme Medical Publishing, Inc.

Brin, M., Vilecovic, M., Ramig, L., & Fox, C. (2004) Dysphonia due to Parkinson disease: Pharmacological, Surgical and Behavioral Management Perspectives. In: Casper , J., and Sapienza, C., (Eds.) Vocal Rehabilitation in Medical Speech-Language Pathology. (pp. 209-269) Austin : Pro-Ed.

Carroll, T., Meyers, A., Ramig, L. (2006). Laryngeal Manifestations of Parkinson Disease. EMedicine J. [serial online]. Available at www.emedicine.com/ent/topic797.htm.

Duncan, Susan (2002): Preliminary data on effects of behavioral and levodopa therapies on speech-accompanying gesture in parkinson's disease, In ICSLP-2002 , 2481-2484.

Fox, C., Ramig, L., Ciucci, M., Sapir, S., McFarland, D., and Farley, B. (2006) The Science and Practice of LSVT/LOUD: Neural Plasticity-Principled approach to treating individuals with Parkinson disease and other neurological disorders. In Robbins, J. (ed.), New Frontiers in Dysphagia Rehabilitation . Seminars in Speech and Language. Vol 27, Number 4, 283-299.

Fox, C., Ramig, L., Halpern, A., & Petska, J., Will, L. (in press). A Speech Therapy Home Program for Patients with Parkinson's Disease. In Trail, M., Protos, E, & Lai, E (Eds). Neurorehabilitation in Parkinson's Disease: An Evidence Based Treatment Model . SLACK Inc. Professional Book Division, Thorofare , NJ .

Fox, C., Ramig, L., Sapir, S., Farley, B., Halpern, A., & Petska, J. (in press). Voice and Speech Disorders in Parkinson Disease and their Treatment. In Trail, M., Protos, E, & Lai, E (Eds). Neurorehabilitation in Parkinson's Disease: An Evidence Based Treatment Model. SLACK Inc. Professional Book Division Thorofare , NJ

Ramig, L. (1992). The role of phonation in speech intelligibility: a review and preliminary data from patients with Parkinson's disease. In R. D. Kent (Ed.) Intelligibility in Speech Disorders: Theory, Measurement, and Management (pp. 119-156). Amsterdam : John Benjamin.

Ramig, L. (1995). Speech therapy for patients with Parkinson's disease. In W. Koller and G. Paulson (Eds.) Therapy of Parkinson's Disease (pp. 539-548). New York : Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Ramig, L. (1995). Voice treatment for neurological disorders of the larynx. Current Opinion in Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery , 3 , 174-182.

Ramig, L. (1996). Neurological disorders of the voice. In W. Brown, B. Vinson, and M. Crary, M. (Eds.) Organic Voice Disorders: Assessment and Treatment, A Tribute to G. Paul Moore (pp. 323-343). San Diego : Singular Press.

Ramig, L. (1998). Treatment of Speech and Voice Problems Associated with Parkinson's Disease. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation. Facilitating Communication in the Older Person . 14(2), 28-43.

Ramig, L. (2000) Voice problems of speakers with dysarthria. In M. Freeman and M. Fawcus (Eds.) Voice Disorders and their Management (pp. 156-171) London : Whurr Publishers.

Ramig, L. (2000). Voice Treatment for Parkinson disease. In Stemple, J. (Ed). Voice Therapy . San Diego : Singular, pp. 76-84.

Ramig, L. (Oct., 2007). Voice Treatment for Individuals with Parkinson's Disease. Perspectives on Gerontology , 12(1), 2-11.

Ramig, L., Countryman, S., Fox, C., Sapir, S., (2001). Speech, voice and swallowing disorders. In: Factor, S., and Weiner, F., (Eds). Parkinson Disease: Diagnosis and Clinical Management. Demos Publishing: New York (NY). pp. 75-87.

Ramig, L., Countryman, S., Fox, C., Sapir, S. (2001). Troubles et reeducation de la voix, de la parole et de la deglutition dans la maladie de Parkinson. In Auzou, P., Ozsancak, C. and Brun, V. (Eds.) Les Dysarthrie s. Masson, Paris (pp. 257-274.)

Ramig, L., Fox, C. and Sapir, S. (2004) Parkinson's disease: speech and voice disorders and their treatment with the Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT). Seminars in Speech and Language. 25, 2, pp.169-180.

Ramig, L., & Fox, C. (2007). Lee Silverman Voice Treatment. In P. Auzou, V. Rolland Monnoury, S. Pinto, and C. Ozsancak (Eds.) Les Dysarthries (pp. 301-306.Marseille: Solal.

Ramig LO, Fox C, Sapir S. (2008). Speech treatment for Parkinson's disease.Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics. 8(2):297-309.

Ramig, L. & Scherer, R. (1992). Speech therapy for neurologic disorders of the larynx. In A. Blitzer, M. F. Brin, C. T. Sasaki, S. Fahn, and K. S., Harris (Eds.) Neurologic Disorders of the Larynx (pp. 163-181). New York : Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.

Ramig , L., Fox, C. & Sapir, S. (2007) Speech, voice and swallowing in Parkinson disease. In Koller, W. & Melamed, E. (Eds.)  Handbook of Clinical Neurology: Parkinson's and Parkinsonian disorders .  (pp 385-399) Elsevier: United Kingdom.

Sapir, S., Ramig, L., & Fox, C (2006). The Lee Silverman Voice Treatment [LSVT ® ] for Voice, Speech, and Other Orofacial Disorders in People with Parkinson's Disease. Future Neurology . 1, 563-570 .

Sapir, S., Ramig, L., & Fox, C. (in press). Voice and speech treatment for neurological disorders. In: A. Blitzer, M. Brin, & L. Ramig (Eds.), Neurological Voice Disorders . New York City: Thieme Medical Publishers.

Sapir, S., Ramig, L., & Fox, C. (2007). Voice, Speech, and Swallowing Disorders in Parkinson's Disease and their Treatment. In: R. Pahwa, K. Lyons, & W. Koller (eds.) Therapy of Parkinson's Disease: Fourth Edition, Revised & Expanded . (pp. 449-471) MARCEL DEKKER, INC.

Sapir, S., Countryman, S., Ramig, L., & Fox, C. (2008). Voice, speech, and swallowing disorders. In Factor, S., and Weiner, F. (Eds.), Parkinson disease: Diagnosis and clinical management, second edition . (pp. 77-98) New York City : Demos Publishing.

Smith, M. & Ramig, L. (1995). Neurologic disorders and the voice. In W. Gould, J. S. Rubin, G. Korovin, and R. Sataloff (Eds.). Diagnosis and Treatment of Voice Disorders (pp. 203-224). Igaku-Shoin.

Trail, M., Fox, C., Ramig, L., Sapir, S., Howard, J., & Lai, E. (2005). Speech treatment for people with Parkinson's disease. Neurorehabilitation . 20, 205-221.

Will, L., Ciucci, M., Ramig, L., & Fox, C. (in press). Swallowing Problems in Parkinson's Disease. In Trail, M., Protos, E, & Lai, E (Eds). Neurorehabilitation in Parkinson's Disease: An Evidence Based Treatment Model. SLACK Inc. Professional Book Division Thorofare , NJ

Treatment materials
Ramig, L. (1993). Voice therapy for patients with Parkinson's disease . A videotape for professionals produced by the National Center for Neurogenic Communication Disorders, University of Arizona - Tucson . Phone : 1-520-621-1787.

Ramig, L. & Fox, C. (2000). LSVT ® an Update. A videotape for professionals produced by the National Center for Neurogenic Communication Disorders, University of Arizona-Tucson. Phone : 1-520-621-1787. (Recording date: November 29, 2000.)

Fox, C. & Ramig, L. (2003). LSVT Ò Homework Helper: Speech Exercises for People with Parkinson disease. A videotape of home exercises for people with Parkinson disease. Distributed by GleeCo, PMB 303, 5575 East River Road, Suite 121 , Tucson , AZ 85750 . 1-866-668-7679 (phone), www.gleecoinc.com (website)

Other papers of general interest
Baker, K., Ramig, L., Sapir, S., Luschei, E. and Smith, M. (2001). Control of voice intensity and frequency in young and older adults. J. Speech, Language, Hearing Research . 44,2,297-305.

Busenbark, K., Ramig, L., Dromey, C. and Koller, W. (1996). Methazolamide for essential voice tremor. Neurology . 47,1331-1332.

Ciucci, M.R., Ma, T.S., Fox, C.M., Kane, J., Ramig, L. & Schallert, T. (2007) Qualitative changes in ultrasonic vocalization in rats after unilateral dopamine depletion or haloperidol: A preliminary study. Behavioural Brain Research, 182 , 284-289.

Dromey, C. & Ramig, L. (1998). The effect of lung volume on selected phonatory and articulatory variables. J. Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 41 , 491-502.

Dromey, C. & Ramig, L. (1998). Intentional changes in sound pressure level and rate: Their impact on measures of respiration, phonation, and articulation. J. Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 41 , 1003-1018.

Kleinow, J., Smith, A., & Ramig, L. (2001). Speech stability in Idiopathic Parkinson disease: Effects of rate and loudness manipulations. J. Speech-Language-Hearing Research , 44(5) , 1041-51.

Ramig, L., Gray, S., Baker, K., Corbin-Lewis, K., Buder, E., Luschei, E., Coon, H., and Smith, M. (2001). The aging voice: a review, treatment data and familial and genetic perspectives. Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica , 53(5) , 252-265.

Ramig, L. & Verdolini, K. (1998). Treatment efficacy: Voice disorders. J. Speech-Language and Hearing Research , 41(1) , S101-S116.

Ramig, L. & Verdolini, K. (1997). The efficacy of voice therapy. Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery , 5 , 153-160.

Application of LSVT: LSVT BIG, LSVT BIG & LOUD, Pediatrics and Technology-enhanced delivery of treatment (journal publications and published abstracts)

Cole, R., Halpern, A., Ramig, L., Van Vuuren, S., Ngampatipatpong, N., & Yan, J. (in press). A virtual speech therapist for individuals with Parkinson disease. In Educational Technology. Educational Technology Publications.

Farley B.G. & Koshland G.F. (2005) Learning Big: Efficacy of a large-amplitude exercise approach for patients with Parkinson's disease bradykinesia to balance. Movement Disorders, 20(10) , p. S137.

Farley, BG (2004) Developing Parkinson'-specific exercise programs. J Active Aging , Sept/Oct: 22

Farley BG, Koshland GF. Training BIG to move faster: the application of the speed-amplitude relation as a rehabilitation strategy for people with Parkinson's disease. Exp Brain Res . 2005 Dec;167(3):462-7.

Farley BG, Fox CM, Ramig LO, McFarland, D. (in press). Intensive amplitude-specific therapeutic approaches for Parkinson disease: Toward a neuroplasticity-principled rehabilitation model. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation.

Fox, C.M., Farley B.G., Ramig, L.O., & McFarland, D. (2005) An integrated rehabilitation approach to Parkinson's disease: Learning big and loud. Movement Disorders, 20(10) , p. S127.

Fox, C. M., Boliek, C., & Ramig, L. (2005). The impact of intensive voice treatment (LSVT) on speech intelligibility in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Movement Disorders, 20(10) , p. S149.

Fox CM , Farley BG, Ramig LO, McFarland, D.  (2007).  An integrated speech and physical therapy approach for Parkinson's disease:  Training Big and Loud.  Movement Disorders , 22 (Suppl. 16) , p S98-S99.

Halpern, A., Matos, C., Ramig, L., Petska, J., Spielman, J., & Will, L. (2005). Technology supported speech treatment for Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders, 20(10) , p. S134.

Halpern, A., Ramig, L., Matos C., Petska, J. Spielman, J. (in review). PDA enhanced speech treatment for Parkinson's disease. J. Speech, Language, Hearing Research .

Halpern A, Spielman J, Ramig L, Cable J, Panzer I, Sharpley A. (2007). The effects of loudness and noise on speech intelligibility in Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders , 22 (Suppl. 16) , p S106.

Spielman J, Halpern A, Ramig L, Fox C. (2007). Studying emergence of behavioral changes during one month of intensive voice treatment (LSVT) in a person with Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders , 22 (Suppl. 16) , p S181-182.

For additional information, please see: www.lsvt.org and www.LSVTGlobal.com

updated: 04/01/08

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