Presenter Nandhu Radhakrishnan
Presentation Title Acoustic, aerodynamic, and kinematic measures of voice production during the “taan” gestures in Indian classical singing
Additional Author Ronald C. Scherer
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1 Ruth Rainero – What is the difference expressed in semi-tones or quarter tones in a taan gesture – does it increase or decrease with the speed of the taan gesture? It sounds to me like the faster he goes the wider he goes. And – do both the difference in frequency and in speed change in terms of what register he is singing in?
….answer has further discussion about tones and pitches in taan gestures and other ornamental singing. Audio link.
1 Audio link.
2 Don Miller – Listening to this with "Western ears", it seems to me you could make a categorical distinction (very much like you do in western type of singing) between a trill and a vibrato, there is not a huge difference in speed the trill is slightly faster with considerably larger frequency difference. [….Listen to the audio for remainder…] Audio link.
2 Audio link.
3 Bill Reilly – I have only a limited experience in Hindustani singing; most of what I’ve heard the ragas go on for about an hour, and the singers that I’ve heard have been on the east coast – only women. So I’m wondering if there are differences between male and female voices in their taan gestures? Specifically, the frequency dips that I’ve heard as they’ve been singing toward the end of the raga after about an hour of singing, with no rest, they take only enough rest to take a breath for this singing. I’m wondering if you have tested for fatigue and dehydration a singer has at the end of the raga? The female singers I’ve heard had dips of 12 semi-tones towards the end of the raga as they are getting emotionally involved and being extremely expressive and also theoretically they are doing more things as they go through their taan gestures. Audio link.
3 Audio link.
4 Stephen Austin – I was wondering, I noticed you have your EGG data, did you happen to use a dual channel EGG so that you have the laryngeal height information? [No, listen to additional discussion about trill and larynx movement in audio link]. Audio link.
5 Ingo Titze – I’m curious about the moods that are expressed basically with this type of ornament. In Western singing with the trill, it’s basically a pitch upward movement with the baseline, and it gives the perception of a sharpened pitch, and hence a heightened excitement into the sound. With the pitch basically going below the intended note, if there is such a thing, do you use it for different mood expression - maybe more sadness or something else, rather than brilliance and excitement, or is the excitement multiply expressed? Audio link.
5 Audio link.
6 Mary Enid Haines – I’m just curious about the posture or stance of the singer when he’s singing and I’m wondering if there’s any external help he gets through head shaking or anything like that when he’s singing. Audio link.
6 Audio link.
7 Ron Scherer – Follow up on Ingo’s – Obstruction is one of the most important aspects of this, and he described obstruction as some muscle or something happening in the larynx, he could almost point to it. So from a mechanical point of view, he thought there was adduction, and we actually found typically there was just the opposite of that. But something was going on, it could very well be strap muscles pulling on the larynx down and up. What I wanted to mention, when the obstruction level gets really severe, more severe than we were able to study, and he does that in performance, the pitch lowering and rising is so fast that it becomes a noise. The ear doesn’t hear a lower and higher pitch like the trill, it’s a big difference with the trill. […Listen to the audio for the rest.] Audio link.
8 Theresa Radomski – First, when you refer to trillo what exactly is that? There’s a concept in certain historical notes that it is a single note repeated. The other thing that’s fascinating to me is the pedagogical aspect of this, because one often thinks of music of this nature[ ……listen to the audio link for the rest]…also – how long is the training for this[taan gestures]? Audio link.
8 Audio link.
9 Irene Feher– As a pedagogue, I’m just curious; first of all apparently these ragas run on for an hour, and they only have these very short breaths; I imagine that breathing is a huge element that is taught with this. Would it be comparable with the breathing that is taught in western classical style? Audio link.
9 Audio link.
10 Irene Feher–My other question is in regards to the role of the tongue. I’m sure that dealing, as we do with students, that the tongue can be just a huge area of tension. Are there numerous vowels that are used or is this basically on one vowel? Just to address, does the tongue even help in any way? Audio link.
10 Audio link.